Methods of Diagnostics and Identification of Urethritis
First of all, the doctor shall ask the patient to describe all the signs in details, chronic pathologies, past surgical interventions, and conduct an examination.
At the laboratory, the following diagnostic methods are used:
• urethral smear to identify the pathogen;
• urine analysis, which includes “urine glass test”, when the patient should urinate consistently in two (“two-glass test”) or three (“three-glass sample”) glasses;
• bacteriological inoculation of urine;
• blood test for sexually transmitted diseases.
The pathogen can be effectively detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-diagnostics).
If an infectious agent is detected, treatment of the sexual partner may be required. For the non-infectious nature, an allergy test is performed to exclude the allergic nature of the disease.
For recurrent or severe urethritis, ultrasound of the kidney is performed to determine a possible pathology that causes urine outflow disorder. In addition, a blood test for sugar is recommended to find out whether diabetes mellitus may cause recurrence of the disease.
• ultrasound of the prostate, bladder;
• urethroscopy: examination of the urethra with an optical device, i.e. urethroscope (not performed for acute pathology);
• urethrography: X-ray examination is performed after filling the urethra with a radiopaque material.
Treatment of Urethritis
The doctor may prescribe the treatment of urethritis in men based on the results of the diagnostic examination, severity and type of the disease (acute/chronic, infectious/noninfectious, and primary/secondary).
• If the pathology was triggered by an irritant, for example, a hygiene product, then cessation of using the product can be enough to recover within a day. If improvements are not seen, it is important to promptly seek qualified assistance.
• For an allergic disease, antihistamines will be effective.
• Bacterial urethritis requires antibiotics. The specific drug is selected based on the swab test, with the sensitivity of the pathogen to be always determined. Chronic urethritis may take a long treatment (up to six months) with antibacterial macrolides.
• In case of a viral disease, specific antiviral drugs (for example, acyclovir for herpetic urethritis), and in case of a fungal infection, antimycotic agents (for example, clotrimazole for candidal urethritis) are prescribed.
To reduce inflammation and pain, the doctor can also prescribe non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as paracetamol, ibuprofen.
In addition to systemic treatment, sometimes without acute processes, local therapy is recommended, such as rinsing (instillation) with antiseptic solutions of the urethra. The doctor can recommend the use of the agents that modulate immunity and/or normalize microflora, if necessary.
Treatment of secondary urethritis should be always aimed at the elimination of the primary pathology. During the treatment, the following measures are to be taken:
• drink enough liquid, fresh water preferably, up to 6-8 glasses per day to ensure adequate elimination of toxic substances;
• exclude mechanical irritation of the urethra;
• abstain from spicy foods, alcohol;
• use sedentary baths to ease your well-being;
• avoid sexual contact, or use a condom;
• provide the partner's treatment (if recommended by a doctor).
Always agree with the doctor, if home treatment can be expedient. Traditional medicine recommends treating male urethritis with the following means:
• cranberry juice;
• black currants drinks;
• infusion of black currant leaves or cornflower dried flowers;
• bath with chamomile decoctions, oak bark, etc.
Approaches to the treatment of chronic pathology represent an actual problem for modern studies resulting in the emergence of new effective therapeutic tools and techniques.
Timely adequate treatment of make urethritis will avoid a number of serious complications such as:
• chronization of the pathological process;
• development of concomitant inflammatory diseases
• of the bladder (cystitis);
• of the kidneys (pyelonephritis);
• of the prostate gland (prostatitis);
• of the seminal vesicles (vesiculitis);
• of the foreskin and penis (balanoposthitis);
• inflammation of the testicle (orchitis) or the epididymis (epididymitis), etc.;
• narrowing (stricture, as used in medicine), deformation of the urethra;
• Reiter's syndrome, reactive arthritis (after chlamydial urethritis, reactive arthritis develops in 1-3% of cases);
• in neglected cases, infertility.
Preventive measures include the following:
• exclusion of promiscuous sexual intercourse, use of condoms;
• timely detection and management of chronic conditions that promote the development of pathologies (urolithiasis, diabetes, etc.);
• prevention and adequate treatment of diseases of the organs of the urogenital tract;
• adequate personal hygiene;
• balanced diet, abstention from harmful food, alcohol;
• elimination of hypothermia;
• giving up smoking;
• annual visit to the urologist, if necessary, examination for STDs;
• in some cases, as prescribed by the doctor, postcoital antibiotic prophylaxis.
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